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ivf treatment : sperm flow to egg

How Long After IVF Treatment Can I Test?

14 May 2024 Blogs, IVF

How Long After IVF Treatment Can I Test?

IVF, or in vitro fertilization, is the procedure where IVF experts take eggs from female partners and sperm from male partners and use them to make an embryo in the laboratory. The embryo is one of the small collections of human cells that transform into the whole human being. Then, the doctors transfer these embryos into the uterus of the female for further growth and development. An IVF pregnancy test is the next step in the procedure. The exact time for testing may vary from patient to patient, but usually, it happens after two weeks of IVF embryo transfer.

What Is IVF | Australian Concept

What are the types of IVF embryo transfer?

There are two main types of IVF embryo transfer.

Fresh Cycle Embryo Transfer:

After administering IVF injections for pregnancy, the IVF doctor takes the egg from the ovaries of the female spouse and the sperm from the husband to make an embryo. Then, the embryologist keeps the embryos in an ideal incubator for three to five days. The perfect time for a fresh cycle transfer of embryos is either after three days (cleavage stage) or five days (blastocyst cell stage) of growth in an incubator. Transfer of embryos after 3 to 5 days of growth in the same menstrual cycle as of IVF injections is called fresh cycle embryo transfer.

Frozen Embryo Transfer:

Sometimes, an IVF expert advises freezing embryos. The purpose of freezing is to treat OHSS (ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome), perform genetic testing (PGT), and transfer left-over embryos for future use. An IVF ERA test is another indication of frozen embryo transfer. The doctor then transfers these embryos after skipping 1 or 2 menstrual cycles. This type of transfer is known as Frozen Embryo Transfer (FET).

What are the types of IVF Medications/Injections?

There are many types of IVF drugs, including IVF-M injection, follitropin injection, and IVF-C injection. All these injections and medicines contain synthetic hormones that maximize the number of eggs during maturation. IVF specialists collect these eggs and use them for fertilization and embryo transfer.

What are the types of pregnancy tests after embryo transfer?

Blood Test:

A blood test checks human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone levels in a pregnant woman’s blood. HCG levels rise after IVF frozen embryo transfer in case of successful pregnancy, and the same is true for fresh cycle embryo transfer. A blood test is an early pregnancy test, and you can take it 10 to 14 days (about 2 weeks) after embryo transfer. The period may vary from patient to patient. For example, a pregnancy test after an IVF 3-day embryo transfer may take a couple of more days to become positive.

Urine Test: 

The urine test is a home pregnancy test after IVF frozen embryo transfer and fresh cycle transfer. You can perform this test at home by purchasing a urine strip and dipping the urine sample (preferably early morning urine). The appearance of 2 lines on the kit represents positive pregnancy, and a single line shows no pregnancy. This test needs to be more accurate. The IVF doctors recommend this test after a couple of weeks at home.

What are the safety measures after embryo transfer?

  • You should rest adequately and eat a healthy diet to maximize your body’s optimal state, which is best for implantation. 
  • You should take your prescribed medications regularly. There are many prescribed drugs suitable for the implantation of embryos, including IVF-C injections. It would help if you took it only with the proper prescription from a doctor. 
  • The couple should abstain from intercourse after embryo transfer until the pregnancy test. In case of a positive pregnancy, the IVF doctor further advises about it. 
  • It would help if you avoided stress and strenuous physical exercises. 
  • A long journey after embryo transfer is not a good idea. 
  • In case of a successful pregnancy, the pregnant lady must visit her gynecologist regularly for a healthy baby. 

Which is the best IVF center in Pakistan?

Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center is a platinum-category IVF center that offers all kinds of assisted reproductive technology services under one roof. We have more than 26 years of experience in the field of infertility treatments. Australian Concept is Pakistan’s largest network of IVF branches linked with the world-known IVF experts. We offer all types of treatments, including timely intercourse (TIC), intrauterine insemination (IUI), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or in vitro fertilization (IVF). Australian Concept is also the best IVF center in Pakistan for IVF tests. 

How do I contact Australian Concept?

Dr. Sajjad’s Australian Concept offers a free first online or physical consultation with an IVF doctor (coordinator doctor) who takes your history, organizes previous labs, advises further necessary tests, and directs you toward a suitable IVF consultant. Visit our website or call today to book a free consultation.

Need Help? Get In Touch.

Call Us to make an appointment with an experienced fertility specialist at Australian Concept

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Smoking Affects

Smoking Affects on Male Reproductive System

30 Apr 2024 Blogs, Infertility

Smoking Affects on Male Reproductive System

All types of smoking affect sperm quality, quantity, and morphology severely. Nicotine is a fundamental component of cigarette smoking, sheesha, and vape. There are serious nicotine effects on sperm motility, shape, and count. The sperm with poor motility are unable to fertilize an egg. Nicotine also has adverse consequences on sperm DNA. It decreases the testicular health and mitochondrial function of sperm. Nicotine increases the risk of infertility, miscarriage, and birth abnormalities in kids.

Smoking effect on health

Does smoking Cause Erectile Dysfunction?

Smoking’s detrimental effects on the circulatory system and general health make it a key contributing factor to erectile dysfunction (ED). Tobacco smoke’s nicotine destroys blood vessels and makes it more difficult for blood to reach the penis during arousal.

Atherosclerosis, which narrows blood arteries and reduces erectile function, is made worse by smoking. Smoking raises the risk of heart disease and hypertension, which can affect blood flow and exacerbate ED. Nicotine decreases blood flow to the penis by interfering with the nitric oxide pathway. Giving up smoking can help ED by increasing blood flow.

Does Smoking Cause Female Infertility?

Smoking reduces the number of healthy eggs and increases the likelihood of menopause by adversely affecting ovarian reserve, a critical component of fertility. Eggs may also sustain damage to their DNA. Smoking causes more and more problems with conception; during the first 12 months, female smokers had a fifty percent greater incidence of late pregnancy. Miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, fetal development issues, early labor, low birth weight, congenital abnormalities, and sudden infant death syndrome are among the dangers associated with smoking during pregnancy.

What are the Male Infertility Treatment Options?

There are many treatment options for male infertility. A thorough assessment and diagnosis by a male infertility specialist is a necessary initial step. Medical treatment includes both oral and injectable drugs. Oral medications like clomiphene and letrozole increase hormonal release, improving sperm count and motility.

Injectables like hMG and hCG can treat hypogonadism. One should use these medications only after a professional prescription from a male infertility specialist. Surgical treatments include testicular biopsy, surgery for varicocele, and track reconstruction for obstructive azoospermia. Advanced techniques like Testicular Sperm Extraction (Tese), Microsurgical Testicular Sperm Extraction (Micro Tese), and Testicular Sperm Aspiration (Tesa) diagnose and treat azoospermia.

Should I go for IVF for Male Infertility Treatment?

IVF, or test tube baby, is the best treatment in the world for all kinds of infertility problems. Its prerequisites always include a thorough assessment and diagnosis of the condition. If anyone is considering going for IVF, seeking professional help for accurate evaluation is the most essential initial step. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection, or ICSI, is an exclusive type of assisted reproductive technology for male issues, such as low sperm count, decreased motility, and abnormal sperm shape. ICSI and IVF due to male infertility is the best route to solve the problem. If you are trying for a baby and have male infertility issues, it’s better to talk to male infertility specialists.

Where to Find Male Infertility Specialists in Pakistan?

There are many top-notch male infertility specialists in Pakistan. Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center is the largest group of IVF centers in many cities in Pakistan. The institute is related to world-class male fertility experts. Australian Concept offers the largest platform for all kinds of assisted reproductive technologies and infertility treatments. We have 26 years of experience in this field. All the necessary treatment steps and proper guidance are available under a single roof. Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center Lahore branch is one of the main branches of Lahore. Top male infertility specialist in Lahore, such as Dr. KhumairDr. Adnan Saeed and Dr. Tahir Bashir offer their esteemed services at the center.

How do I contact Australian Concept?

Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center offers free on-site or online consultation where an ART coordinator doctor follows the steps of taking history, orders appropriate labs, and arranges an appointment with the corresponding consultant. Here is all the information you need to contact Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center physicians in various Pakistani cities.

Need Help? Get In Touch.

Call Us to make an appointment with an experienced fertility specialist at Australian Concept

Book Appointment

Kindly fill in the form below and your nearest Australian Concept Clinic will respond within 1 hour of receiving your request.

Embryo and Fetus

What is embryo transfer in IVF?

17 Apr 2024 Blogs, IVF

What is embryo transfer in IVF?

What is embryo transfer in IVF?

Before we go into embryo transfer, let us understand what in vitro fertilization is. In vitro fertilization, or IVF, is a type of assisted reproductive technique that allows a male sperm to fertilize a female egg out of the body in an embryology laboratory. It represents the summit of infertility treatment that science has ever uncovered. It entails retrieving female eggs from those who have undergone injectable medicine for ovarian stimulation. In an embryology lab, the male sperm is inserted into the eggs by the embryologist. It causes fertilization, which leads to the formation of zygotes.

A zygote is the single pioneer cell that makes up every individual. For a few days, typically three to five, an embryologist preserves a zygote in an incubator, where it develops and divides into an embryo, a multicellular structure. After fertilization, three to five days are the ideal time for transfer. At this stage, one or more excellent-quality embryos will be transferred into the uterus by your infertility expert. These embryos adhere to the uterine wall and begin developing in preparation for a viable pregnancy. This part of IVF is known as embryo transfer.
Embryo and Fetus

What are the types of embryo transfers?

We can categorize the various forms of embryo transfers based on the transfer day and the frozen state.

1. Fresh Cycle Embryo Transfer:

Fresh cycle embryo transfer is where the IVF expert transfers the embryo after a few days, usually 3–5 days of fertilization. After loading embryos into a catheter, your doctor places these embryos in the womb, where the pregnancy will happen. Usually, doctors do not advise general anesthesia for this non-invasive procedure.

2. Frozen Embryo Transfer:

The embryology team freezes the leftover embryos in anticipation of their future use. Genetic testing, such as PGT, and patient health issues, including ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), are additional reasons for undergoing the freezing process. They freeze these embryos at very low temperatures and thaw them before transfer. The thawing process brings embryos to room temperature and defrosts them in preparation for transfer. Depending on different conditions, they can transfer these frozen embryos months or years later. Frozen embryo transfer (FET) is the term for the transfer of such embryos. The other steps of the surgical transfer procedure stay the same.

a) Day 3 Embryo Transfer (At Cleavage):

In this type, health professionals transfer embryos after three days of fertilization in the laboratory. By this time, embryos have grown into several cell stages, often six or eight. It refers to the cleavage stage. Nowadays, blastocyst-stage transfers are more prevalent than cleavage-stage transfers because of better pregnancy results.

b) Day 5 Embryo Transfer (Blastocyst):

After five days of fertilization, embryos grow further into many cell stages called blastocysts. A blastocyst is a highly developed and advanced human cell with many characteristic features, such as compactness. The chances of pregnancy are much higher with the transfer of such embryos.

What is the embryo transfer procedure?

Following is the IVF embryo transfer procedure in a stepwise manner.

What are the precautions after embryo transfer?

After transferring the embryos successfully, usually, two weeks later, the next step involves taking a pregnancy test. Your doctor can recommend hormone supplements during this period to boost the embryo’s implantation process and growth. The patient may get back to her regular daily activities following the procedure. Here are some precautions after embryo transfer in IVF.

Do’s after embryo transfer in IVF:

Don’ts after embryo transfer in IVF:

The pregnancy test after IVF frozen embryo transfer or fresh cycle embryo transfer takes place after two weeks. The result will indicate ‘positive’ if the pregnancy is successful; otherwise, it may indicate ‘non-pregnant’ if your body has not accepted the embryo. An IVF specialist presents such results and then determines the next round of action.

What are the signs of early IVF Pregnancy?

It is logical to be keen on indicators following an embryo transfer that could show the procedure’s success. But it’s important to understand that not every sign suggests a good or bad result and that some could be deceptive.

Positive Signs after Embryo Transfer:

Negative Signs after Embryo Transfer:

Which is better: a frozen embryo transfer or a fresh embryo transfer?

It is a common understanding that frozen embryo transfer is better than fresh-cycle embryo transfer. The reality is far more complicated than this. Frozen embryo transfer allows time to treat various conditions, such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Very high or low progesterone levels are also an indication of frozen embryo transfer. Hectic use of medications for ovarian stimulation may decrease body progesterone levels. The body needs time to normalize the hormone in such cases. Normal progesterone levels are essential for a successful pregnancy. FET provides time for genetic testing, such as PGT, which increases success rates and decreases the chances of hereditary disease transmission.

On the other hand, freezing and thawing are stressful processes for embryos. Damage can occur to the embryos as a result of the freezing process. Throwing can also affect the quality and overall survival of embryos. Not every embryo can make it through the freezing and thawing procedure.

Due to their quality or viability, certain embryos may not be suitable for freezing as they cannot sustain it. A fresh embryo transfer is the only acceptable option for such embryos. It also saves time for the couple.

In conclusion, frozen embryo transfer is the treatment of choice for the previously described reasons. However, both fresh and frozen embryo transfers are viable options. The decision depends on the specific situation. An infertility specialist decides on your behalf according to your customized conditions and the quality of your embryos.

Which has a better success rate?

IVF frozen embryo transfer and fresh cycle transfer success rates are comparable. This area needs further research, but the current studies show no significant differences in success rates. The freeze-all strategy is only beneficial when dealing with complications like ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) or going for genetic testing. Other factors, such as maternal age, are better indicators of success rates.

IVF and Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center:

The Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center is the premier IVF facility in Pakistan, providing cutting-edge infertility treatments, including test-tube babies and assisted reproductive technology (ART). With 26 years of experience in IVF and assisted reproductive techniques, we have a team of exceptional infertility specialists and professional embryologists with extensive experience in Pakistan and internationally. We offer a comprehensive range of infertility treatments, including IUI (intrauterine insemination), IVF, TIC (timely intercourse), and PGT (genetic testing). Our IVF treatments are available to patients in all major cities in Pakistan.

How do I contact Australian Concept?

Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center offers a free first consultation online or in-clinic. An infertility coordinator doctor will gather your medical history, arrange any required lab work, and make an appointment with the appropriate infertility specialist. You may book an appointment with Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center doctors in different Pakistani cities using the information below. Contact us or plan a free consulting session now.

IVF-Invitro Fertilization

What Are IVF Success Rates By Age

What Are IVF Success Rates By Age


IVF (in-vitro fertilization) is an effective assisted reproductive technology that helps partners conceive. The technology works for couples diagnosed with infertility because of various factors, including blocked fallopian tubes, endometriosis, congenital uterine anomalies, etc., in women, and azoospermia, genetic problems, and immune problems in men.

Many things affect one’s ability to conceive, one of which is maternal age. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the average age of a woman getting pregnant for the first time is 27.

While IVF can help partners struggling with infertility, its success rate depends on your age.
In this post, we’ve shared the IVF success rate by age, factors affecting the success of IVF treatment, and the best age for a woman to consider the procedure. Read on.

When Should You Consider IVF?

Negative pregnancy test results after trying for a year or longer to conceive indicate a problem with your fertility. Reasons why a couple might choose IVF include blocked or damaged fallopian tubes, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, PCOD, and low egg reserve (to name a few). IVF also works in cases of male infertility.

IVF is considered a step ahead of regular fertility treatments. If you have tried all medications, surgical procedures, and hormonal treatments but have seen no results, IVF is your best chance at conceiving.

In-vitro fertilization isn’t only for couples who can’t conceive naturally, but it’s advised for those who fear passing their problematic genes to their children. The procedure involves Preimplantation Genetic Screening (testing the embryo for genetic problems before they are implanted into the uterus). This makes it a safer choice for parents with genetic disorders.

IVF-Invitro Fertilization

IVF Success Rate By Age

IVF success rate depends on factors like the cause of infertility and the maternal age. It works just like natural pregnancies. Younger women have a higher chance of conceiving through the procedure. As your age increases, your chances of fertility decline.

This happens because a woman’s egg reserves and quality decline after a certain age, affecting her ability to conceive naturally.

According to SART’s reports, the IVF success rate by age is shown below.

Woman’s Age

IVF Success Rate

As you can see, the chances of conceiving through this assisted reproductive technology decrease drastically with your age. IVF’s success rate over 40 is just 9.6%. The success rate may also differ depending on whether you use fresh or frozen embryos.

Can You Get Pregnant On the First Try?

Some women achieve a healthy and viable pregnancy on the first attempt of the IVF cycle. Younger women are likely to conceive quickly because of the good egg supply. The chances increase if you opt for multiple embryo transfers, but that comes with the risk of multiple pregnancies.

Women above 35 years or in their 40s might need multiple cycles of IVF to get a positive pregnancy test result.

How Does Your Age Affect Your Fertility?

Age is one of the most common factors affecting a woman’s pregnancy. Although a woman is born with an egg reserve for a lifetime, the quality and quantity of these eggs decline as she ages.
A balanced diet and a healthy lifestyle can help improve your chances of conceiving. However, age will still be the number one factor determining your chances of conception. For instance, a woman in her 20s has up to a 30% chance of conceiving every month, given that her reproductive health is in good condition. The percentage starts to decline as she crosses 30. A woman in her 40s has only a 5% chance of conceiving every month.

Even if a woman conceives at an older age, she has a higher risk of pregnancy-related complications than a younger woman. The chances of miscarriage and genetic abnormalities (due to poor egg quality) increase after 35. There’s also an increased risk of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, placenta previa, and stillbirth in older women.

What Factors Affect the IVF Success Rate?

Age is undeniably one of the most crucial IVF success factors, but it alone doesn’t determine your chances of getting pregnant with this procedure. Here are a few common factors that affect the success rate of an IVF cycle.

The lower your AMH level, the fewer eggs your healthcare provider can retrieve. Before in-vitro fertilization treatment, you will undergo a series of tests that evaluate your uterine anatomy, AMH levels, and overall reproductive health.

Women with abnormalities in the uterus and other reproductive organs are less likely to get pregnant with IVF compared to those who have had one or more healthy pregnancies in the past. Certain lifestyle factors, such as smoking, a sedentary lifestyle, and alcohol consumption, can also affect the IVF success rate.

How to Improve IVF Success Rate?

No supplement can magically increase your pregnancy success rate after an IVF cycle. However, experts recommend a few tips to improve your chances of conceiving. This applies to both—women who conceive naturally and those undergoing IVF or other assisted reproductive treatments. Here’s what can help:

  • A Healthy Weight: Overweight and obese women face more complications in getting and maintaining pregnancy than healthier women with a normal body mass index. That’s because your weight affects your ovulation cycle and causes hormonal imbalance.
  • Quit Alcohol and Smoking: Smoking cigarettes has been linked to poor egg quality in women. Likewise, alcohol consumption can negatively affect your pregnancy.
  • Improve Your Dietary Intake: Add lots of vitamins, minerals, and healthy nutrients to your diet. Limit the intake of caffeine, processed foods, and other unhealthy snacks.
Sometimes, a woman experiences difficulty conceiving because of an underlying medical problem. You may have a healthy reproductive system, but certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, hypertension, and thyroid problems, can affect your pregnancy. PCOD is also linked to an increased risk of infertility, as it affects your ovulation cycle and hormonal balance.

What Should You Expect During IVF?

IVF is divided into five stages, starting with the ovarian stimulation. Your doctor will give you hormonal injections to stimulate the production of eggs. They will schedule egg retrieval, in which the mature eggs are collected from your ovaries and are mixed with the sperm in an incubator. They are left overnight for fertilization. The fertilized eggs are transferred into the woman’s uterus through a minimally invasive procedure.

Pregnancy Through Other Assisted Reproductive Technology

IUI – Intrauterine Insemination is another procedure that helps women achieve a healthy pregnancy. The chances of conceiving through IUI are significantly lower than that of IVF. The procedure involves injecting the healthy sperm directly into the woman’s uterus to increase the chances of fertilization and embryo implantation. IUI is scheduled around the time of ovulation.

However, if we compare the IUI vs. IVF success rate, the latter is more effective. IUI has a success rate of 5-20 percent per cycle, while the success rate of IVF is close to 45% in healthy women.

IVF Blog Image

What Are The Stages of IVF And Its Process

What Are The Stages of IVF And Its Process

Do you know infertility is not as uncommon as one might think? According to the World Health Organization, 17.5% of the population worldwide suffers from infertility, which translates to every 1 in 6 couples. Fortunately, assisted reproductive technology helped infertile couples conceive.
IVF, or in-vitro fertilization, has been around for decades, with the first IVF treatment dating back to 1978. IVF procedure helped many aspiring parents get pregnant.
You might already be familiar with the IVF concept, which involves uniting the sperm and eggs outside the human body. However, there’s more to it than that. In this post, we’ll walk you through everything you should know about IVF, including how it’s conducted in five stages and the success rate. Keep reading.

What is In-Vitro Fertilization?

IVF is an assisted reproductive technology recommended for partners who can’t get pregnant after trying for a year or longer. IVF is a medical procedure that involves the fertilization of an egg outside a human’s body. Mature and healthy eggs are collected from the woman’s ovaries and are combined with the sperm in a lab.

Once fertilization occurs, the resulting embryo is implanted into the woman’s uterus, where it grows into a fetus. The pregnancy continues like normal. The procedure might take 2-3 weeks and is often split into several stages. Sometimes, multiple embryos are implanted into the uterus to increase your chances of pregnancy, but this can also result in multiple implantations, meaning you might carry twins or triplets.

IVF Blog Image

IVF Process and Its 5 Stages:

IVF is split into five stages, as explained below:

Ovarian Stimulation:

A woman’s ovaries release one egg each month during her ovulation cycle. If you choose in-vitro fertilization, your healthcare provider use injectables that signal your body to produce multiple eggs at a time, thus increasing the chances of releasing at least one viable egg that can be fertilized.
Simply put, your gynecologist will inject Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, which matures your eggs and prepares your uterus to hold them. In this first step of IVF, your doctor order ultrasounds to check your ovarian follicles and hormonal tests for estrogen levels.

Removing the Eggs

The egg retrieval or harvesting is conducted 36 hours after your doctor injects the hormone to mature the eggs. Your doctor will pay attention to the timing of the egg retrieval, as delaying it too much can lead to losing healthy eggs.
Egg retrieval requires a minor surgery, usually conducted on an outpatient basis. In this procedure, the doctor will harvest your eggs transvaginal.
Ultrasound use to locate the ovarian follicles that hold the eggs and insert a thin needle through your vagina to collect the eggs. The needle attached to a suction device is guided to the ovarian sacs to harvest the eggs safely. The procedure isn’t as painful as it sounds. You will be sedated throughout the process, although mild cramping is quite common after egg retrieval. It should resolve within a day or two.

Sperm Retrieval

Your healthcare provider will schedule sperm retrieval with egg retrieval. The semen sample should be fresh, although frozen sperm can sometimes be used. If the man is diagnosed as infertile due to azoospermia or other causes, a surgical sperm retrieval procedure advised to collect healthy sperm. Like egg retrieval, it’s performed on an outpatient basis. The patient sedated, and a thin needle inserted into their testicles to harvest sperm. The sample undergoes a high-speed wash cycle, which separates healthy sperm from the dead sperm.


The next step is the most crucial. Eggs are united with sperm to induce fertilization. This can be done in a traditional way, in which the eggs and sperm are put in a petri dish and mixed. The doctor leaves them overnight to fertilize naturally.
If that doesn’t work, they will inject the sperm into the egg. It takes 24 hours for the fertilization to be successful. Your medical team will check the petri dish to know if fertilization has taken place. Once the procedure is successful, they will leave the fertilized egg for 5-6 days.
Sometimes, the medical team might conduct Preimplantation genetic Testing (PGT) on the fertilized eggs to test them for genetic diseases or any chromosomal abnormalities before they implanted into the uterus. This is done on the fifth or sixth day of fertilization. The doctor might freeze the embryos until the results are available.

Implantation of the Embryo

While your eggs are stored in the petri dish for fertilization in the lab, you will be on hormonal medication that thickens your uterine lining to prepare it for implantation. These hormonal medications will continue throughout the first trimester to ensure your uterus supports the embryo.
You must visit the doctor within 2-5 days of fertilization for the embryo implantation. It’s done through transvaginal ultrasound and a catheter that’s inserted into the uterus through the cervix. The catheter carries the fertilized egg, which is implanted into the uterus.
Depending on your health and goals, the doctor might insert more than one embryo at a time. The doctor might also save the embryos for later use, i.e., if you need to undergo another cycle of IVF.
The doctor schedule a pregnancy test within a week or two after embryo implantation to check your HCG levels. If they are rising normally, your doctor will order an ultrasound three weeks later to evaluate the viability of your pregnancy.

Success Rate of IVF

How successful IVF is for a couple depends on multiple factors, like the woman’s age, the cause of infertility, location, the quality of her eggs, and more. On average, 55% of women below 35 could conceive a healthy baby through IVF on their first try. Surprisingly, 8 million babies are born annually with IVF treatment. So far, it’s considered the most effective form of infertility treatment.


Many women have received positive pregnancy results from an IVF test in the past. While you might conceive in the first IVF attempt, there’s a chance the embryo might not implant successfully, or you might have to undergo another IVF cycle to conceive. However, IVF is your best chance at conceiving if the natural ways and other infertility treatment options have failed.

a doctor with gynecology patient

Gynecology and IVF Treatment

Gynecology and IVF Treatment

What is Gynecology?

Genecology is a field of medicine which treats women’s reproductive health issues. It offers diagnosis and treatments for diseases affecting the female reproductive system, including their prevention and therapy in genecology, the gynecologist deals with the ailment of female reproductive organs such as ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, uterus, etc.

What is the difference between Obstetrics and Gynecology?

Obstetrics and Gynecology are two different fields of medicine that focus on two distinct aspects of the female reproductive system.
Obstetrics focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of pregnant women. It involves the welfare of the pregnant woman and baby, providing care for the pregnant woman, unborn baby, delivery and the immediate period afterwards. Its main aim is to provide the best prenatal care and to prevent complications during labour and delivery.
Gynaecology deals with all the other issues related to female reproductive organs. It includes diagnosis and treatment of cancer of the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes. Gynaecologists can also aid in matters pertaining to infertility and contraception.

a doctor with gynecology patient

What are Gynecological Disorders?

Gynecological disorders include all those conditions that impact the female reproductive organs adversely. Gynecological disorders may consist of the following:

Can Gynecological Disorders Lead to Infertility?

A couple’s inability to conceive after trying for 12 months is termed infertility. Infertility has become a global issue. Today, millions of people all over the world are either struggling to conceive or to carry a healthy pregnancy. Several factors contribute to this increasing ratio of fertility issues, gynecological disorders being one of them.
Most often, the underlying issue behind a couple’s inability to conceive can be a gynecological disorder. Yes, gynecological disorders can affect fertility. Many women are not even aware of whether they have a gynecological disorder. This lack of diagnosis and treatment can cause fertility issues, and the couple may find it difficult to conceive or carry a healthy pregnancy.

How Gynecological Disorders Can be Treated?

Gynecological disorders can have a significant impact on a woman’s physical as well as mental health. Getting these issues identified at their initial stages is crucial so they can be treated well on time to prevent long-term complications. A regular gynecological examination can be fruitful in this regard.
Depending upon the underlying issue, different gynecological issues require further diagnosis and treatment. To treat gynecological disorders, treatments involving hormone therapy, medication, and surgery are employed. Moreover, gynecological disorders and issues can be alleviated by maintaining a healthy lifestyle, staying active, managing stress levels and exercising regularly.

Can Gynecological Treatment Help with Infertility?

We already know that gynecological disorders can affect a woman’s fertility. Gynecological disorders such as endometriosis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), fibroids, etc., can contribute to infertility. However, through proper diagnosis and the precise identification of the underlying issues, infertility can be treated. Furthermore, assisted reproduction techniques, such as In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and intrauterine Insemination (IUI), can also help couples in conception.

ivf sperm release
What is IVF?

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is the most efficient assisted reproductive technique that has helped millions of couples globally in achieving parenthood. It is a highly advanced procedure which is recommended to couples who fail to conceive through conventional assisted reproduction procedures. Since its introduction, IVF has changed the dynamics of endocrinology. Today, it is known as the most successful technique and as a ray of hope for couples struggling to conceive or carry a pregnancy.

Is IVF helpful for Women suffering from Gynecological Disorders?

Gynecological Disorders can harm a woman’s fertility. Data suggests that thousands of women suffering from gynecological disorder(s) have conceived and birthed successfully with the help of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). It has successfully aided women with endometriosis and blocked fallopian tubes in conception. The technique has been proven successful in cases of unexplained infertility as well. However, to make an IVF treatment successful, a team of highly experienced and trained fertility experts and gynecologists is imperative. In IVF, eggs and sperm are fertilized outside the human body, which enhances the chances of conception for women suffering from gynecological disorders

What is the Procedure of IVF?

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) consists of a series of stages that require diligence. Following is a brief of the IVF procedure step by step:

1. The cycle of IVF starts with ovarian stimulation. At this stage, the ovaries are stimulated with certain hormones to retrieve 10-20 oocytes per cycle. More number of oocytes means more chances of successful fertilization per IVF cycle.

2. The oocytes are retrieved after about 36 hours of the trigger shot. The retrieved eggs are kept under optimal conditions. At the same time, sperm is collected from the male partner and prepared in the laboratory for fertilization.

3. In conventional IVF, sperm and eggs are put together in a laboratory culture medium where the sperm fertilizes the eggs. In ICSI, the sperm is injected into the egg, so it does not need to penetrate it, increasing the chance of successful fertilization. The couples can choose the technique they should use based on their fertility experts‘ advice.

4. When the embryos reach the blastocyst stage, the embryologist identifies the most viable embryo for transfer. This is the last stage of IVF, where one or two embryos are transferred into the uterus. The patient is asked to wait 14 days before performing a pregnancy test.

When should a couple consider IVF?

IVF is a highly advanced treatment which is recommended to couples who are unable to conceive after 12 months of trying. If any of the following conditions are present, experts may suggest the couple to go for IVF:

Low AMH Levels: Her egg reserve declines as the female partner ages. Low AMH levels can cause difficulty in achieving pregnancy naturally. Therefore, in women above 34 years of age, we check AMH levels prior to suggesting they go for IVF. If their AMH level is <1 ng/ml, we recommend they go for IVF as soon as possible.

Unsuccessful Conventional Treatments: If the couple has failed to conceive with the help of other conventional treatments available, we advise them to go for IVF due to its efficiency and advanced nature.

Recurrent Pregnancy Loss: A couple struggling to have a healthy pregnancy and facing recurrent miscarriages should also consider undergoing IVF treatment.

Endometriosis: Endometriosis can impact the functioning of a woman’s reproductive organs. It can also lead to tubal blockage, which may prevent the sperm from meeting the eggs. In such a case, IVF is considered an excellent solution to achieve parenthood, especially for women having stage 3 or 4 endometriosis.

Gynecological Treatment: A woman who has undergone surgery, i.e., ovarian surgery, as a treatment for any gynecological disorder may consider IVF to achieve motherhood. Ovarian surgery can impact a female’s ovarian reserve adversely. Hence, in such a case, IVF can be a viable option.

Male Factor Infertility: In some cases, a couple is unable to conceive due to male-factor infertility. There are several factors which may cause male factor infertility, such as poor sperm motility or morphology, etc. Couples struggling to conceive due to male factor infertility can also consider IVF to achieve parenthood.

Unexplained Infertility: There are numerous instances where a couple is unable to conceive, but the underlying fertility issues are unknown. For such couples, IVF is an excellent option to achieve parenthood successfully.

Success rate table
What are IVF Success Rates?

Infertility has become a global issue. Since IVF’s introduction, millions of children have been conceived with the help of IVF treatment. Although IVF is considered a successful treatment for millions, its success rates are different for different maternal ages. It decreases with the increase in maternal age. Data reveals that the IVF success rate for women under 35 years of age is 47.6%, while for women from 35-37 years of age, it is 30.7%. As the maternal age increases, the IVF success rates decrease significantly. Studies have shown that the live birth rate can be as low as 3.1% in women above 42 years of age.

What are the complications of IVF?

Although IVF is a safe medical procedure, there are some risks and complications associated with it. Ovarian stimulation can lead to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS), which may be life-threatening in some cases. However, in mild cases, the following complications can be experienced:

Is Infertility Treatment necessary for Women facing Gynecological Challenges?

Gynaecological disorders can impact a female’s fertility. It can affect the ability of a woman to conceive naturally. Women suffering from gynaecological disorders may require one or two infertility treatments to enhance their chances of thriving.
Infertility treatment is necessary for women having PCOS, uterine fibroids, endometriosis, etc. However, not all women suffering from some gynaecological condition face fertility problems; most of them may need medications or undergo other procedures to aid them in conception.
Women suffering from gynaecological disorders are advised to consult with a gynaecologist and fertility expert to identify their underlying conditions so they may diagnose and treat the condition appropriately.


Gynecological disorders can impact a woman’s ability to conceive if they are not treated in a timely manner. A team of experienced physicians, embryologists, gynecologists and obstetricians is imperative for successful fertility treatment. The impact of gynecological disorders on a woman’s ability to conceive has significantly caused the need to get fertility treatments.
Fertility can be treated through tailored treatment plans, which include medication, surgery and assisted reproductive techniques. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is the most advanced technique that has helped millions of couples worldwide in conception and healthy birth. It is also helpful for women suffering from gynecological disorders, such as severe endometriosis, to achieve pregnancy if they are unable to conceive naturally. However, IVF success rates vary with each case, but they are affected by increased maternal age and underlying fertility issues in general.
It is to be noted that not every woman experiencing some gynecological disorder needs to undergo fertility treatment. For them, proper gynae examinations, timely diagnosis and treatment can prove fruitful. If you experience the symptoms of any gynecological disorder, you must consult with an experienced gynecologist and genetic counsellor to make your pregnancy smooth and avoid complications-free.


Difference Between IVF and ICSI

30 Jan 2024 Blogs, ICSI, IVF

Difference Between IVF and ICSI

In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) are two revolutionary procedures in the field of infertility treatments, providing hope to couples who are trying to conceive naturally. In these processes, eggs and sperm are fertilized outside the body.


 The resulting embryos are nurtured in an incubator for 3-5 days and then implanted in the mother’s womb. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a popular assisted reproductive technology used to treat female infertility and unexplained infertility. On the other hand, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is commonly used when male factor infertility is the cause. ICSI involves the injection of a single sperm directly into the egg to increase the chances of fertilization.


What is IVF:

ivf sperm

IVF, or In Vitro Fertilization, is a type of Assisted Reproductive Technology that involves the fertilization of the sperm collected from the male partner and eggs extracted from the female partner outside the body. 


There are several steps in the process of IVF:


Production of eggs: The female partner undergoes hormonal therapy to produce multiple eggs.

Extraction of eggs from ovaries: After the eggs reach the level of maturity, a minor surgical procedure is performed to collect the eggs from the ovaries 

Sperm Collection: After the collection of eggs from the female, a sperm sample is collected from the male partner.

Fertilization: Eggs are placed in a laboratory dish, and sperms are sprayed on them for fertilization. 

Embryo culture: The fertilized egg develops into an embryo and is then incubated for a few days.

Embryo transfer: The next step is the transfer of the healthy embryo into the mother’s uterus, which will result in a successful pregnancy. 


IVF is a revolutionary solution for couples who are unable to conceive naturally due to a variety of reasons, such as fallopian tube issues, male infertility, endometriosis, or unexplained fertility problems. There has been a significant development in assisted reproductive technology (ART) in recent years, which has resulted in the increased popularity of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) as compared to the traditional In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). Although IVF is still a valuable technique, ICSI has emerged as a more advanced and effective method.

What is ICSI:

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a treatment specifically designed for male factor infertility. Unlike IVF, in which the egg and sperm are fertilized naturally, ICSI involves the direct injection of healthy sperm into the cytoplasm of healthy sperm. 

The ICSI procedure begins with the collection of eggs from the female partner through the standard IVF process. Simultaneously, a sperm sample is obtained from the male partner or a sperm donor. The embryologist then carefully selects a viable sperm and injects it directly into the egg using a microneedle.

ICSI is particularly recommended when male fertility issues are major causes of infertility, such as ;

  • Obstructive azoospermia 
  • Low sperm count, 
  • Poor sperm motility,
  •  Abnormal sperm morphology

ICSI increases the chances of successful fertilization and embryo development by allowing direct sperm-egg interaction. 

This technique has proven to be a valuable option for couples facing challenges related to male infertility, offering them an enhanced chance of achieving a successful pregnancy when conventional IVF may not be as effective.

ICSI yields impressive fertilization rates ranging from 50% to 80%.  Please contact us promptly to schedule ICSI appointments. Your journey toward parenthood awaits.

What is the difference between IVF and ICSI


In Vitro Fertilization (IVF)

Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)

Fertilization Process

Natural fertilization in a lab dish.

Direct injection of a single sperm into the egg.

Sperm-Egg Interaction

Sperm is allowed to penetrate the egg naturally.

Single sperm is injected into the egg using a microneedle.


Used in various infertility cases.

Recommended explicitly for male-factor infertility+ female factor 

Success Rates

Success rates may vary based on multiple factors.

Often used when conventional IVF may have lower success.

A table of success rate
What is the IVF/ ICSI success rate

The success rates for IVF and ICSI depend on various factors such as age, infertility cause, and the health of the sperm and eggs. It is important to note that success rates for IVF and ICSI can vary based on multiple factors such as age, infertility cause, and the health of the sperm and eggs. 

For women under 35 years of age, the reported success rates for both IVF and ICSI are around 50%. However, for women aged 40 and over, the success rates tend to be lower, around 25%. However, success rates tend to decline with increasing age due to factors such as a decrease in egg quality and quantity. It is best to consult with our fertility specialists to determine the best treatment plan for your individual needs.

When should I choose ICSI?

The results of your fertility tests and a consultation with one of our fertility specialists can help you decide which fertility treatment is right for you. Our experts will always work with you to make you fully aware of your treatment plan, process, and pricing before you begin your treatment.

You need to consult with one of our fertility specialists and get the results of your fertility tests to determine the best fertility treatment for you. 

Our fertility experts will work with you to ensure you understand your treatment plan, process, and pricing before you start any treatment.

Cost Difference between IVF and ICSI

The cost of In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and Intra-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) in Pakistan typically ranges from Rs 750,000 to 850,000. However, it’s important to note that the actual expenses of fertility treatments can vary depending on several factors, including the history of the patient and the treatment plan. The Australian Concept is committed to providing personalized treatment plans according to the specific needs of each patient. The cost of IVF and ICSI treatments can vary depending on the individual treatment plan recommended by our fertility specialists. We strive to ensure that our patients receive the best possible care at an affordable cost

Why is ICSI recommended for infertility treatment?

 ICSI is a highly successful assisted reproductive technology. It addresses various causes of infertility, such as irregular ovulation, male factor issues, tubal and uterine problems, and genetic disorders, providing hope for couples facing challenges in conceiving.

What are the benefits of ICSI?

ICSI offers benefits such as addressing male factor infertility, overcoming ovulation disorders, treating tubal and uterine issues, genetic screening, increased control over family planning, and tailored treatment plans. It is effective in increasing pregnancy rates, with reported live birth rates of 20-40% for females under 40

How effective is ICSI in achieving fertilization?

 ICSI is highly effective in achieving fertilization, with fertilization rates typically ranging from 70% to 85% of eggs injected using this procedure.

Is sperm donation legal in Pakistan?

 No, sperm donation is generally considered illegal in Pakistan due to cultural and religious considerations.

Myths About Infertility | Australian Concept

Myths About Infertility

20 Sep 2022 Blogs, Infertility


Myths About Infertility | Australian Concept

Myths About Infertility

The word “infertile” means produce offspring or unable to reproduce itself. In medical terms, infertility often pertains to the inability to conceive a child despite regular unprotected sexual intercourse for a significant period. A person or a couple is said to be infertile when it is unable to conceive naturally after trying for over an year. Infertility in women declines with age therefore, for women above 35 years of age, infertility is defined as their inability to get pregnant after trying for 6 months. 1 in every 7 couples are said to be infertile. In almost half of these couples, male infertility plays a partial role at least. The lack of awareness about infertility has caused people to believe the common myths about infertility and infertility treatment.

Causes of Infertility

Infertility can be caused by numerous reasons. Sometimes, the cause of infertility is unidentifiable. 1 in every 4 couples experience unexplained infertility. The causes of infertility can be:

In women:

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Endometriosis
  • Damaged / Blocked fallopian tubes
  • Thyroid problems
  • Premature ovarian failure
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Fibroids formation in / around womb

In Men:

  • Low sperm count
  • Absence of sperm
  • Poor sperm motility
  • Abnormal sperm
  • Testicular cancer / surgery
  • Injury to testicles
  • Undescended testicles

In both men and women, sedentary lifestyle and drug abuse along with the side effects of certain medication can also be a cause of infertility.

Infertility Treatment

Infertility can be caused by a number of reasons but it cannot be cured. Infertility is a medical problem which can only be treated through various procedures and techniques. Following are some treatments commonly recommended for infertility treatment:

  • Medication / Hormone treatment
  • Surgery such as, fallopian tube surgery, and laparoscopy.
  • Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) such as, Intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilization, etc. Before deciding to go for such treatment, people must be aware of infertility treatment cost in general, IVF treatment and successful IVF centres in Pakistan to minimise their chances of becoming a victim of misinformation.
Myths About Infertility | Australian Concept

Common Myths about Infertility

Pregnancy and infertility are two topics which are never short of myths. Most often, these myths are circulated by literate people and family who are trying to help and make people affected by it feel better. Although it is done in good faith, but it can be negative influence towards the person’s mental health during the journey. Such myths can even hold a person back from getting the care and fertility treatment he needs. Following are the five myths about infertility with facts:


Infertility is a rare condition

People assume that infertility is a rare condition and most women don’t struggle with it. Whereas, in fact, a vast number of people struggle with conception and have fertility issues. In near future, infertility can perhaps become a social issue globally. It is recommended for women below the age of 35 years to visit a doctor if they are unable to conceive after trying for over an year and for women above 35 the time period is lessened to 6 months.

Infertility is a women’s problem

People often attribute infertility with women and believe it to be a medical conditions that only affects women. In fact, infertility can impact men also. To determine the root cause of infertility, both men and women are examined and evaluated. Data reveals that almost 50% cases of infertility are due to male factors such as, low / no sperm count, abnormal sperm shape / motility, etc.

Fertility is not affected by increasing age

People have a misconception that fertility is not affected by age if you are healthy. They even believe that waiting to get pregnant can not be issue as treatments like In vitro fertilization are available. This is NOT true at all. The older a woman gets, the more struggle she will face to conceive. The quality and quantity of egg starts to decrease with increase in age at a substantial rate. Therefore, seeking early assistance in this regard can be fruitful.

Conceiving for the second time is easy

Due to lack of awareness, people tend to assume that infertility cannot affect them if they already have a baby. But the fact is, infertility is classified into types one of which is secondary infertility. Secondary infertility is a condition which affects the couple who already have a child but are unable to conceive or carry a pregnancy for a second time. The same factors causing primary infertility can cause secondary infertility also, the treatment of subsequent infertility is same as for primary infertility.


Stress causes infertility

High stress condition can cause ovulation issues but stress cannot be directly linked as a cause of infertility. Oftentimes, people in good faith, advice couples experiencing infertility to take as less stress as possible if they desire to conceive but it is so inaccurate for people dealing with it. Stress minimizing activities can have a positive impact upon the health and well-being of patients but such activities are not proven to benefit fertility.
People shouldn’t let these myths deter them from getting timely treatment. Also, men tend to believe some common myths about male infertility which are not true at all, such as:

Male fertility isn’t affected by age

Similar to women, male fertility is also affected by age in fact, the sperm quality and quantity starts to decrease after 40 years of age in men.

Men don’t need supplements to boost fertility

Like folic acid helps women in getting pregnant, it can help men in maintaining a healthy sperm count as well. Low folic acid intake is often linked with high rate of chromosomal abnormalities in sperm. Besides, Vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 also helps in this regard.

Caffeine doesn’t impact sperm count

Consuming more than 4 cups of caffeine a day can have serious effects on male fertility. As per Nutrition Journal 2017, in taking more than four cups of coffee in a day can result in abnormally shaped sperm.
Misconceptions about infertility in general and male infertility are still abound. In order to prevent yourself from becoming a victim of misinformation, you should develop an understanding of infertility and its treatments. It can prove to be immensely helpful when you’re planning to start a family.

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testicular detail image

Testicular Biopsy

20 Sep 2022 Blogs
testicular detail image

Testicular Biopsy

Male Infertility

In order to reproduce, both male and female reproductive organs have to function properly. A couple is rendered infertile when they are unable to procreate naturally. This may happen due to various reasons, issues in either of the partner leads to infertility in couples. Male infertility is often caused due to functional or structural issues with testicles.

Testicular Biopsy | Australian Concept
testicular epididymis & Inflamed testicle

Testicular Biopsy

Biopsy refers to a medical test which is commonly performed by a surgeon. In biopsy, sample cells are extracted for examination to determine the presence and extent of a disease. The tissue is observed under a microscope by a pathologist.
Testicular biopsy also referred as testis biopsy is a test for infertility in which small sample of tissue is removed from both or either of testicles. It is examined under a microscope by a male infertility specialist. It is considered as an acknowledged method for examination of testicles for diagnostic and other purposes.

Role of Testicular Biopsy in Male Infertility

Testicular biopsy is an important technique in diagnosing male infertility, but it is not the first step for the diagnosis. Initially, health history, blood tests and semen analysis is performed by the doctor. Through blood tests and semen analysis, low sperm count, poor sperm quality and absence of sperm is determined. Testicular biopsy for male infertility is used to evaluate whether a man’s fertile to become a father. It may be used to:

Determine the cause of male infertility

Detect the location and condition of lump in testes

Diagnose testicular cancer

Extract sperm for In Vitro Fertilization only if, sperm is present in testes.

Male Reproductive System

In order to understand testicular biopsy and its procedure, one must he familiar with the male reproductive system. The male reproductive system consists of the following organs

  • Testicles
  • Epididymis
  • Penis
  • Urethra
  • Ejaculatory Duct
  • Vas deferens

Male reproductive system is made up of internal and external organs which work together for procreation and do the following tasks:

  • Production, maintenance and transportation of sperm cells and semen.
  • Production and secretion of male fertility hormones

Procedure of Testicular Biopsy

Two different procedures are used for testicular biopsy either open or percutaneous. The type of biopsy varies with the reason for the test.

In Open Biopsy, a small surgical cut is made through the skin and testicle and testicle tissue is removed. Later on, the opening and cut is closed with stitches. This procedure may also be repeated for the other testicle if required. It is also known as surgical biopsy.

In Percutaneous Biopsy, no cut is made through the skin because a special thin biopsy needle is inserted through the skin that extracts testicle tissue. The needles has syringe at the end which collects the tissue. It is a fine needle biopsy which requires no incision or stitches.

Risks associated with Testicular Biopsy

Where at one hand testicular biopsy can aid in resolving male infertility issues on the other hand, it has some risks associated with it. Although, it does jot carry risks of erection or fertility issues but following are the risk which may be caused:

  • Bleeding (very rarely for longer durations)
    Severe pain
    Swelling in scrotum
    Collection of blood under skin
    Internal damage to testicles or surrounding organs

Duration of Testicular Biopsy

Testicular biopsy is not a time taking procedure, in fact it is an out patient procedure which takes 15 to 20 minutes for its completion. A patient has to stay still during the procedure for which he may be sedated or given general anaesthesia.

Results of Testicular Biopsy

It takes two to four days for the results to arrive. The results of testicular biopsy can either be normal or abnormal. It is termed as normal when there is normal sperm development and no cancerous cells are detected. Results are termed as abnormal when there is problem with sperm or hormone function. Sometimes, test results appear normal but semen analysis show no/lack of sperm production. It can be due to blocked tubes through which sperm travels to urethra. Such blockage can be treated through surgery.
Testicular biopsy, commonly, is performed to detect the cause of infertility. It is done after a semen analysis suggests there is abnormal sperm and the cause of it is not being determined by other tests. If the sperm is being produced and present in the testicles, through this procedure sperm is obtained which helps in achieving fatherhood through assisted reproductive technology.

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Difference between Azoospermia & Oligospermia | Australian Concept

Difference between Azoospermia & Oligospermia

2 Sep 2022 Blogs
Difference between Azoospermia & Oligospermia | Australian Concept

Infertility is often attributed with women and considered women’s issues. In fact, men can also be infertile. The inability of a man to impregnate his partner is known as male infertility. It can be caused due to various reasons. Mostly, male infertility is caused due to issues with sperm cells which in most cases are a result of oligospermia or azoospermia. About 12% to 15% of couples suffer with infertility world wide.

Signs of Male Infertility

The major sign of male infertility is his inability to achieve pregnancy. It also has some other symptoms such as,

Genetic / Hormonal disorders

Low sperm count

Condition blocking the passage of sperm to flow

Chromosomal abnormalities

Low sex drive

Ejaculation issues

Decreased facial / body hair

Dilated veins around testicles

Sperm motility issues


Difference between Azoospermia & Oligospermia | Australian Concept

Oligospermia and Azoospermia

Azoospermia and Oligospermia are two terms, having Greek origin, which are often used in the world of male infertility. Basically, oligospermia means there is not adequate amount of sperm cells present in the semen whereas, azoospermia means that there is no sperm cells present in the semen at all.

What is Azoospermia?

Azoospermia is a medical term used to indicate the absence of sperm cells in the ejaculate. It is a severe condition which often a time leads to infertility in men. It is classified into obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia.

Obstructive Azoospermia is when the sperm cells are blocked from combining with the ejaculate.

Non-Obstructive Azoospermia happens when there is a lack or complete absence in production of sperm by the testicles.

Obstructive Azoospermia is treatable but non-obstructive azoospermia is comparatively severe and can only be treated if there is little production of sperm by the testicles

Azoospermia is a rare condition affecting only 1% of global men population however, about 15% cases of male infertility are due to azoospermia.

What is Oligospermia?

In contrast to azoospermia, oligospermia is a condition which refers to low sperm count in semen. According to WHO, if sperm count is less than 500 million sperm per milli-litres then the condition is called oligospermia. It can be mild, moderate or severe.

Mild Oligospermia: it is diagnosed when the sperm count is between 10-15 million sperm per milli-litre.

Moderate Oligospermia: it is diagnosed when the sperm count is between 5-10 million sperm per milli-litre.

Severe Oligospermia: it is diagnosed when the sperm count is 0-5 million sperm per milli-litre.

Men diagnosed with oligospermia can conceive but the degree of oligospermia can effect the probabilities of having children.

Causes of Oligospermia and Azoospermia

Chromosomal abnormalities such as, kleinfelter’s syndrome, kallmann’s syndrome and kartagener syndrome.

Hormonal imbalances due to any alteration in the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. As, these two hormones are required for sperm production.

Medications such as ulcer medication, antibiotics or antifungal medicines, testosterone replacement therapy or chemotherapy drugs.

Retrograde ejaculation can also be a cause of such condition when semen instead of flowing out of the penis reverses back to the bladder.

Anti-Sperm antibodies can kill the sperm cells by mistakenly identifying them as harmful invaders which subsequently affects the sperm count.

Environmental toxins including, exposure to chemicals, heavy metals or radiations.

Sertoli-cell-only syndrome due to which no sperm is produced by the testicles.

Undescended testicles if during the fetal development the testicles didn’t descend from the abdomen to the scrotum then fertility of that person is affected and such people are unlikely to be fertile.

Anorchia is the absence of testicles which can also lead to azoospermia.

Obstruction can be a reason of low or no sperm count. It can be caused due to blockage in the duct because of abnormal developments such as cystic fibrosis or surgeries in the past.

Trauma or Injury as a consequence of vasectomy, scrotal surgery, hernia repair surgery, etc.

Diagnosis & Treatment for Oligospermia and Azoospermia

A person might never know that he is suffering with oligospermia or azoospermia unless he tries to conceive and fails. Upon consulting a specialist and after diagnosis, he gets to know the cause of infertility which most the times in male factor infertility is, oligospermia and azoospermia.
Azoospermia and Oligospermia can be diagnosed through semen analysis after a detailed physical examination and questionnaire about medical history. To determine whether or not a person is suffering with oligospermia some other tests are also recommended which includes, urinalysis, trans-rectal and scrotum ultrasounds, endocrine system and genetic disorders tests.

azoospermia sperm
treatment of azoospermia

Treatment for Azoospermia

Azoospermia can be treated depending upon its type e.g., obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia.
Obstructive azoospermia can be treated by removing the blockage preventing the sperm from flowing. It can be done either by reconnecting or reconstructing the ducts which are preventing the sperm flow. This is mostly done through surgery.
Non-Obstructive Azoospermia is rather severe and it may not respond to medical treatment. In such cases, pregnancy can be achieved through assisted reproductive technology.
If azoospermia is caused due to low hormone production then it can be treated through hormonal treatment and medication.

Treatment for Oligospermia

Oligospermia can be treated through various medical procedures depending upon its underlying cause. If the condition is due to varicocele or vasectomy, then it can be reversed/corrected through surgery. It can also be treated through hormonal treatment and medications as well as adapting a healthy lifestyle to increase the sperm count. If all the treatments fail to aid in increasing sperm count, assisted reproductive technology can be used to achieve biological fatherhood.
People diagnosed with non-obstructive azoospermia and severe oligospermia can benefit from IVF. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most successful and common type of assisted reproductive technology which has helped a number of couples in conception.

sperm image during ivf

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