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Myths About Infertility | Australian Concept

Myths About Infertility

20 Sep 2022 Blogs, Infertility


Myths About Infertility | Australian Concept

Myths About Infertility

The word “infertile” means produce offspring or unable to reproduce itself. In medical terms, infertility often pertains to the inability to conceive a child despite regular unprotected sexual intercourse for a significant period. A person or a couple is said to be infertile when it is unable to conceive naturally after trying for over an year. Infertility in women declines with age therefore, for women above 35 years of age, infertility is defined as their inability to get pregnant after trying for 6 months. 1 in every 7 couples are said to be infertile. In almost half of these couples, male infertility plays a partial role at least. The lack of awareness about infertility has caused people to believe the common myths about infertility and infertility treatment.

Causes of Infertility

Infertility can be caused by numerous reasons. Sometimes, the cause of infertility is unidentifiable. 1 in every 4 couples experience unexplained infertility. The causes of infertility can be:

In women:

  • Polycystic ovary syndrome
  • Endometriosis
  • Damaged / Blocked fallopian tubes
  • Thyroid problems
  • Premature ovarian failure
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Fibroids formation in / around womb

In Men:

  • Low sperm count
  • Absence of sperm
  • Poor sperm motility
  • Abnormal sperm
  • Testicular cancer / surgery
  • Injury to testicles
  • Undescended testicles

In both men and women, sedentary lifestyle and drug abuse along with the side effects of certain medication can also be a cause of infertility.

Infertility Treatment

Infertility can be caused by a number of reasons but it cannot be cured. Infertility is a medical problem which can only be treated through various procedures and techniques. Following are some treatments commonly recommended for infertility treatment:

  • Medication / Hormone treatment
  • Surgery such as, fallopian tube surgery, and laparoscopy.
  • Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) such as, Intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilization, etc. Before deciding to go for such treatment, people must be aware of infertility treatment cost in general, IVF treatment and successful IVF centres in Pakistan to minimise their chances of becoming a victim of misinformation.
Myths About Infertility | Australian Concept

Common Myths about Infertility

Pregnancy and infertility are two topics which are never short of myths. Most often, these myths are circulated by literate people and family who are trying to help and make people affected by it feel better. Although it is done in good faith, but it can be negative influence towards the person’s mental health during the journey. Such myths can even hold a person back from getting the care and fertility treatment he needs. Following are the five myths about infertility with facts:


Infertility is a rare condition

People assume that infertility is a rare condition and most women don’t struggle with it. Whereas, in fact, a vast number of people struggle with conception and have fertility issues. In near future, infertility can perhaps become a social issue globally. It is recommended for women below the age of 35 years to visit a doctor if they are unable to conceive after trying for over an year and for women above 35 the time period is lessened to 6 months.

Infertility is a women’s problem

People often attribute infertility with women and believe it to be a medical conditions that only affects women. In fact, infertility can impact men also. To determine the root cause of infertility, both men and women are examined and evaluated. Data reveals that almost 50% cases of infertility are due to male factors such as, low / no sperm count, abnormal sperm shape / motility, etc.

Fertility is not affected by increasing age

People have a misconception that fertility is not affected by age if you are healthy. They even believe that waiting to get pregnant can not be issue as treatments like In vitro fertilization are available. This is NOT true at all. The older a woman gets, the more struggle she will face to conceive. The quality and quantity of egg starts to decrease with increase in age at a substantial rate. Therefore, seeking early assistance in this regard can be fruitful.

Conceiving for the second time is easy

Due to lack of awareness, people tend to assume that infertility cannot affect them if they already have a baby. But the fact is, infertility is classified into types one of which is secondary infertility. Secondary infertility is a condition which affects the couple who already have a child but are unable to conceive or carry a pregnancy for a second time. The same factors causing primary infertility can cause secondary infertility also, the treatment of subsequent infertility is same as for primary infertility.


Stress causes infertility

High stress condition can cause ovulation issues but stress cannot be directly linked as a cause of infertility. Oftentimes, people in good faith, advice couples experiencing infertility to take as less stress as possible if they desire to conceive but it is so inaccurate for people dealing with it. Stress minimizing activities can have a positive impact upon the health and well-being of patients but such activities are not proven to benefit fertility.
People shouldn’t let these myths deter them from getting timely treatment. Also, men tend to believe some common myths about male infertility which are not true at all, such as:

Male fertility isn’t affected by age

Similar to women, male fertility is also affected by age in fact, the sperm quality and quantity starts to decrease after 40 years of age in men.

Men don’t need supplements to boost fertility

Like folic acid helps women in getting pregnant, it can help men in maintaining a healthy sperm count as well. Low folic acid intake is often linked with high rate of chromosomal abnormalities in sperm. Besides, Vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 also helps in this regard.

Caffeine doesn’t impact sperm count

Consuming more than 4 cups of caffeine a day can have serious effects on male fertility. As per Nutrition Journal 2017, in taking more than four cups of coffee in a day can result in abnormally shaped sperm.
Misconceptions about infertility in general and male infertility are still abound. In order to prevent yourself from becoming a victim of misinformation, you should develop an understanding of infertility and its treatments. It can prove to be immensely helpful when you’re planning to start a family.

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testicular detail image

Testicular Biopsy

20 Sep 2022 Blogs
testicular detail image

Testicular Biopsy

Male Infertility

In order to reproduce, both male and female reproductive organs have to function properly. A couple is rendered infertile when they are unable to procreate naturally. This may happen due to various reasons, issues in either of the partner leads to infertility in couples. Male infertility is often caused due to functional or structural issues with testicles.

Testicular Biopsy | Australian Concept
testicular epididymis & Inflamed testicle

Testicular Biopsy

Biopsy refers to a medical test which is commonly performed by a surgeon. In biopsy, sample cells are extracted for examination to determine the presence and extent of a disease. The tissue is observed under a microscope by a pathologist.
Testicular biopsy also referred as testis biopsy is a test for infertility in which small sample of tissue is removed from both or either of testicles. It is examined under a microscope by a male infertility specialist. It is considered as an acknowledged method for examination of testicles for diagnostic and other purposes.

Role of Testicular Biopsy in Male Infertility

Testicular biopsy is an important technique in diagnosing male infertility, but it is not the first step for the diagnosis. Initially, health history, blood tests and semen analysis is performed by the doctor. Through blood tests and semen analysis, low sperm count, poor sperm quality and absence of sperm is determined. Testicular biopsy for male infertility is used to evaluate whether a man’s fertile to become a father. It may be used to:

Determine the cause of male infertility

Detect the location and condition of lump in testes

Diagnose testicular cancer

Extract sperm for In Vitro Fertilization only if, sperm is present in testes.

Male Reproductive System

In order to understand testicular biopsy and its procedure, one must he familiar with the male reproductive system. The male reproductive system consists of the following organs

  • Testicles
  • Epididymis
  • Penis
  • Urethra
  • Ejaculatory Duct
  • Vas deferens

Male reproductive system is made up of internal and external organs which work together for procreation and do the following tasks:

  • Production, maintenance and transportation of sperm cells and semen.
  • Production and secretion of male fertility hormones

Procedure of Testicular Biopsy

Two different procedures are used for testicular biopsy either open or percutaneous. The type of biopsy varies with the reason for the test.

In Open Biopsy, a small surgical cut is made through the skin and testicle and testicle tissue is removed. Later on, the opening and cut is closed with stitches. This procedure may also be repeated for the other testicle if required. It is also known as surgical biopsy.

In Percutaneous Biopsy, no cut is made through the skin because a special thin biopsy needle is inserted through the skin that extracts testicle tissue. The needles has syringe at the end which collects the tissue. It is a fine needle biopsy which requires no incision or stitches.

Risks associated with Testicular Biopsy

Where at one hand testicular biopsy can aid in resolving male infertility issues on the other hand, it has some risks associated with it. Although, it does jot carry risks of erection or fertility issues but following are the risk which may be caused:

  • Bleeding (very rarely for longer durations)
    Severe pain
    Swelling in scrotum
    Collection of blood under skin
    Internal damage to testicles or surrounding organs

Duration of Testicular Biopsy

Testicular biopsy is not a time taking procedure, in fact it is an out patient procedure which takes 15 to 20 minutes for its completion. A patient has to stay still during the procedure for which he may be sedated or given general anaesthesia.

Results of Testicular Biopsy

It takes two to four days for the results to arrive. The results of testicular biopsy can either be normal or abnormal. It is termed as normal when there is normal sperm development and no cancerous cells are detected. Results are termed as abnormal when there is problem with sperm or hormone function. Sometimes, test results appear normal but semen analysis show no/lack of sperm production. It can be due to blocked tubes through which sperm travels to urethra. Such blockage can be treated through surgery.
Testicular biopsy, commonly, is performed to detect the cause of infertility. It is done after a semen analysis suggests there is abnormal sperm and the cause of it is not being determined by other tests. If the sperm is being produced and present in the testicles, through this procedure sperm is obtained which helps in achieving fatherhood through assisted reproductive technology.

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Difference between Azoospermia & Oligospermia | Australian Concept

Difference between Azoospermia & Oligospermia

2 Sep 2022 Blogs
Difference between Azoospermia & Oligospermia | Australian Concept

Infertility is often attributed with women and considered women’s issues. In fact, men can also be infertile. The inability of a man to impregnate his partner is known as male infertility. It can be caused due to various reasons. Mostly, male infertility is caused due to issues with sperm cells which in most cases are a result of oligospermia or azoospermia. About 12% to 15% of couples suffer with infertility world wide.

Signs of Male Infertility

The major sign of male infertility is his inability to achieve pregnancy. It also has some other symptoms such as,

Genetic / Hormonal disorders

Low sperm count

Condition blocking the passage of sperm to flow

Chromosomal abnormalities

Low sex drive

Ejaculation issues

Decreased facial / body hair

Dilated veins around testicles

Sperm motility issues


Difference between Azoospermia & Oligospermia | Australian Concept

Oligospermia and Azoospermia

Azoospermia and Oligospermia are two terms, having Greek origin, which are often used in the world of male infertility. Basically, oligospermia means there is not adequate amount of sperm cells present in the semen whereas, azoospermia means that there is no sperm cells present in the semen at all.

What is Azoospermia?

Azoospermia is a medical term used to indicate the absence of sperm cells in the ejaculate. It is a severe condition which often a time leads to infertility in men. It is classified into obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia.

Obstructive Azoospermia is when the sperm cells are blocked from combining with the ejaculate.

Non-Obstructive Azoospermia happens when there is a lack or complete absence in production of sperm by the testicles.

Obstructive Azoospermia is treatable but non-obstructive azoospermia is comparatively severe and can only be treated if there is little production of sperm by the testicles

Azoospermia is a rare condition affecting only 1% of global men population however, about 15% cases of male infertility are due to azoospermia.

What is Oligospermia?

In contrast to azoospermia, oligospermia is a condition which refers to low sperm count in semen. According to WHO, if sperm count is less than 500 million sperm per milli-litres then the condition is called oligospermia. It can be mild, moderate or severe.

Mild Oligospermia: it is diagnosed when the sperm count is between 10-15 million sperm per milli-litre.

Moderate Oligospermia: it is diagnosed when the sperm count is between 5-10 million sperm per milli-litre.

Severe Oligospermia: it is diagnosed when the sperm count is 0-5 million sperm per milli-litre.

Men diagnosed with oligospermia can conceive but the degree of oligospermia can effect the probabilities of having children.

Causes of Oligospermia and Azoospermia

Chromosomal abnormalities such as, kleinfelter’s syndrome, kallmann’s syndrome and kartagener syndrome.

Hormonal imbalances due to any alteration in the pituitary gland and hypothalamus. As, these two hormones are required for sperm production.

Medications such as ulcer medication, antibiotics or antifungal medicines, testosterone replacement therapy or chemotherapy drugs.

Retrograde ejaculation can also be a cause of such condition when semen instead of flowing out of the penis reverses back to the bladder.

Anti-Sperm antibodies can kill the sperm cells by mistakenly identifying them as harmful invaders which subsequently affects the sperm count.

Environmental toxins including, exposure to chemicals, heavy metals or radiations.

Sertoli-cell-only syndrome due to which no sperm is produced by the testicles.

Undescended testicles if during the fetal development the testicles didn’t descend from the abdomen to the scrotum then fertility of that person is affected and such people are unlikely to be fertile.

Anorchia is the absence of testicles which can also lead to azoospermia.

Obstruction can be a reason of low or no sperm count. It can be caused due to blockage in the duct because of abnormal developments such as cystic fibrosis or surgeries in the past.

Trauma or Injury as a consequence of vasectomy, scrotal surgery, hernia repair surgery, etc.

Diagnosis & Treatment for Oligospermia and Azoospermia

A person might never know that he is suffering with oligospermia or azoospermia unless he tries to conceive and fails. Upon consulting a specialist and after diagnosis, he gets to know the cause of infertility which most the times in male factor infertility is, oligospermia and azoospermia.
Azoospermia and Oligospermia can be diagnosed through semen analysis after a detailed physical examination and questionnaire about medical history. To determine whether or not a person is suffering with oligospermia some other tests are also recommended which includes, urinalysis, trans-rectal and scrotum ultrasounds, endocrine system and genetic disorders tests.

azoospermia sperm
treatment of azoospermia

Treatment for Azoospermia

Azoospermia can be treated depending upon its type e.g., obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia.
Obstructive azoospermia can be treated by removing the blockage preventing the sperm from flowing. It can be done either by reconnecting or reconstructing the ducts which are preventing the sperm flow. This is mostly done through surgery.
Non-Obstructive Azoospermia is rather severe and it may not respond to medical treatment. In such cases, pregnancy can be achieved through assisted reproductive technology.
If azoospermia is caused due to low hormone production then it can be treated through hormonal treatment and medication.

Treatment for Oligospermia

Oligospermia can be treated through various medical procedures depending upon its underlying cause. If the condition is due to varicocele or vasectomy, then it can be reversed/corrected through surgery. It can also be treated through hormonal treatment and medications as well as adapting a healthy lifestyle to increase the sperm count. If all the treatments fail to aid in increasing sperm count, assisted reproductive technology can be used to achieve biological fatherhood.
People diagnosed with non-obstructive azoospermia and severe oligospermia can benefit from IVF. In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most successful and common type of assisted reproductive technology which has helped a number of couples in conception.

sperm image during ivf

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